Spitfires of the US Navy

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During the Second World War, the skies over France and Germany were the responsibility of Britain’s Royal Air Force and the United States Army ...

During the Second World War, the skies over France and Germany were the responsibility of Britain’s Royal Air Force and the United States Army Air Forces. US Naval aviation had only limited opportunities to engage Hitler’s armed forces. Although no fast carrier task force was present to support the landings at Normandy on 6 June 1944, Naval Aviators did, in fact, participate in this greatest amphibious invasion in history.

The best known of the US Navy Spitfires is probably this one, carrying the designation 4Q. Mechanics of VCS-7 posing with the aircraft are (from left to right): James J. O’Connor; C.N. Pfanenstiel; Chief Aviation Machinist’s Mate V.G. Disa; Aviation Machinist’s Mate Third Class R.P. Theirauld; and Edmund Pachgio.

During its short-time combat tour VCS-7 used a miscellany of second-hand Spitfires Mk. V. All of their aircraft carried ordinary RAF markings and paint schemes. The swastika victory mark below the cockpit originates from previous use of the aircraft; it was evidently left out during the more recent repaint of the airframe. [US Navy]

VCS-7, Seagulls to Spitfires

Naval Aviation’s mission on 6 June was to provide air spotting support for the cruisers and battleships bombarding targets along the Normandy beachhead.

For this purpose, each vessel normally carried several aviators and two or three floatplanes, either SOC Seagulls or OS2U Kingfishers. Both aircraft performed the spotting mission quite well. Operations in the Mediterranean during 1943 had shown, however, that against strong enemy aerial opposition the SOCs and OS2Us were far too vulnerable. They lacked the speed and manoeuvrability to escape attacks made by Focke-Wulf Fw 190s and Messerschmitt Bf 109s. In the Mediterranean, efforts were being made to train VCS pilots in the handling of fighters such as the P-40 Warhawk and P-51 Mustang. Flying fighters, the air spotting pilots stood a much better chance of eluding enemy air attacks.

Perhaps because of the high demand on P-51s for strategic bomber escort duties, it was decided that 17 VCS and Battleship Observation (VO) pilots aboard the cruisers Quincy (CA 71) Tuscaloosa (CA 37) and Augusta (CA 31) and the battleships Nevada (BB 36) Arkansas (BB 33) and Texas (BB 35) would be checked out in RAF Spitfire Mk Vbs.

At the time of VCS-7 operations, Naval Curtiss SOC Seagulls and Vought OS2U Kingfishers (in the background) were stored ashore. [US Navy]

The 67th Tactical Reconnaissance Group, Ninth Air Force, under the command of Colonel George W. Peck, was assigned the task of checking out the VCS-7 aviators in Spitfires. Training was conducted at the 67th’s base in Middle Wallop, Hampshire. The training syllabus consisted of defensive fighter tactics, aerobatics, navigation, formation flying and spotting procedures.

On 8 May, Lieutenant Robert W. Calland, senior aviator aboard Nevada, assumed command of the squadron. He was relieved by Lieutenant Commander William Denton, Jr., senior aviator aboard Quincy, on the 28th. That same day, the squadron became fully operational and moved to Royal Naval Air Station (RNAS) Lee-on-Solent.

Ten squadrons, five RAF, four Royal Navy FAA (Fleet Air Arm) and VCS-7, were brought together at Lee-on-Solent to provide air spotting for the fire support ships of the Western and Eastern Naval Task Forces. The Western Naval Task Force, Rear Admiral Alan G. Kirk commanding, would land the US. First Army on beaches Utah and Omaha. The Eastern Naval Task Force would land the British Second Army on beaches Gold, Juno and Sword. Two of the RAF squadrons, Nos. 26 and 63, flew Spitfires. The other three, Nos. 2, 268 and 414, flew Mustang Mk. Is and Mk. lAs. The four FAA squadrons, Nos. 808, 897, 885 and 886, were assigned Seafire Mk. Ills.

On D-day, all aircraft were pooled. This meant that VCS-7 flew whatever type was available, either Seafire or Spitfire. Although Mustangs were present, they were not flown by any VCS-7 aviators-the reason being that they had not been checked out in the type.

At noon on D-Day, the RAF Mustangs were withdrawn for tactical reconnaissance duties. This left some 95 aircraft available for air spotting support at RNAS Lee-on-Solent.

VCS-7 pilots are briefed before flying a gunfire spotting mission over the Normandy beachheads, June-July 1944. Those present are (from left to right): Wing Commander Robert J. Hardiman, RAF, Commanding Allied Spotter Pilots; Ensign Robert J. Adams, USNR; Major Noel East, British Army Intelligence; Lieutenant Harris Hammersmith, Jr., USNR; and Captain John Ruscoe, Royal Artillery, Gunnery Liaison Officer. [US Navy]

Another photo taken in Lee-on-Solent showing VCS-7 pilots and English personnel in readiness. Shown on the photo are Ensign Robert J. Adams, USNR, (drinking a cup of tea); Lieutenant Alexander A. Smith, USNR, studying maps, second from the right. [US Navy]

Typical spotting missions utilized two aircraft. The lead plane functioned as the spotter. The wingman, or “weaver”, provided escort and protected the flight against enemy aerial attack. The clocking, or ship control, method was utilized on the majority of spotting sorties. Standard altitude for spotting missions was 6,000 feet, but poor weather forced the spotter to operate between 1,500 and 2,000 feet. Occasionally, missions were flown at even lower altitudes. Drop tanks were used to increase range. A typical spotting sortie lasted close to two hours. This provided 45 minutes on station and 1 hour in transit.

The Luftwaffe was rarely encountered, although six of the station’s aircraft were shot down by German fighters. Four VCS-7 pilots were attacked by Bf 109s and Fw 190s, putting the fine defensive capabilities of the Spitfire to the test. All four aviators successfully avoided being shot down.

Flak, however, was common and accounted for the squadron’s only loss, Lieutenant Richard M. Barclay, senior aviator aboard Tuscaloosa. Lt. Barclay’s wingman, Lieutenant (jg) Charles S. Zinn, also from Tuscaloosa, managed to return home despite severe damage to his right wing and aileron.

The exact number of aircraft lost by VCS-7 during the Normandy campaign cannot be verified as of this writing. VCS-7’s action report mentions only the loss of Lt. Barclay’s aircraft. Author David Brown in his book, The Seafire, the Spitfire that went to sea, claims that VCS-7 lost 7 aircraft to enemy action and 1 operationally in 209 sorties flown. Unfortunately, Mr. Brown fails to cite the source of his information. According to VCS7’s action report, the squadron flew a total of 191 sorties between 6 and 25 June. The busiest days were the 6th, 7th and 8th. During those three days, a total of 94 sorties were flown.

4Z was a late-production Spitfire Mk. VC featuring individual exhaust manifolds of the same type which were adopted for Spitfire Mk. IX. An interesting and non-standard feature is the single reinforcing “fence” above the wheel well.
The pilots are Lieutenant Robert F. Doyle, USNR, shaking hands with his wingman, Ensign John F. Mudge, USNR, after their return from a gunfire-spotting and strafing mission over the Normandy. [US Navy]

Following the bombardment of Cherbourg on 26 June, naval gunfire support operations ceased. The fighting had moved inland out of the range of the ships big guns. VCS-7 was, therefore, disbanded by order of Adm. Kirk, and all personnel returned to their ships.

During 20 days of combat operations, the aviators of VCS-7 were awarded 9 Distinguished Flying Crosses, 6 Air Medals and 5 Gold Stars in lieu of additional Air Medals. Ten VCS-7 aviators went on to participate in the invasion of southern France and three others took part in the invasions of Iwo Jima and Okinawa in the Pacific during 1945.

This article was first published in Naval Aviation News, May-June 1994

9 Comments | Add New

By Barbara E. Adams  |  2013-02-28 at 16:45  |  permalink

My dad was a member of the U.S. Navy’s only Spitfire Squadron, Ens. Robert J. Adams, USNR. Is there anyone I can communicate with about this?

By Jon Butts  |  2013-11-09 at 08:52  |  permalink

Hello Barbara,

I am Chairman of Lee Flying Association, at Daedalus Aerodrome, Lee-On-Solent, where VCS-7 operated in support of D-Day.

I am planning a D-Day 70th Memorial Event here on the 4th June 2014 and came across your comment
“My dad was a member of the U.S. Navy’s only Spitfire Squadron, Ens. Robert J. Adams, USNR. Is there anyone I can communicate with about this?”
at http://spitfiresite.com/2010/04/spitfires-of-the-us-navy.html?replytocom=4938#respond

If you would like to know more about the event please let me know – we will be commemorating the D-Day role the airfield and the squadrons here in June 1944 – and are hoping to attract Spitfire and Mustang to visit.

Maybe there is more we can learn from you about VCS-7 and your father?

Kind regards


Jon Butts
Lee Flying Association

[…] Additionally, a small number of United States Navy squadrons flew Spitfires as photoreconnaissance aircraft from bases in England throughout the war. [1] […]

By Donald Smith  |  2014-06-07 at 17:21  |  permalink

If you scroll down to the first picture past the photo of the SOC Seagull you come to a photo that was featured in the November 1944 issue of Flying Magazine in an article titles ‘Seamen in Spits’ by Lieut (jg) John R. Norris, USNR. The individual in the foreground wearing the leather flying helmet is my father, Lt Alexander Smith. He is perhaps misidentified as Lt. Harris Hammersmith.
This picture is shown in at least two other books about D-Day.

By Jon Butts  |  2014-09-13 at 16:47  |  permalink

Hello Don,

I am researching VCS-7 further following our Lee-on-Solent Daedalus D-Day 70th commemoration 2-4 June this year.

New (to me) information that has come to light through that is that as well the 18 VCS pilots at Lee-on-Solent there were forty US VCS-7 ‘ground-crew’, who I guess came from the ship-board aircraft units such as your fathers. Perhaps he was one of those ‘ashore’ here during June 1944 but I only have names of the 18 pilots.

The airfield log for D-Day + 9 shows “Two Kingfishers on floats were dispatched to their ships.” That tallies with your June 15th 1944 date – perhaps your father was aboard one of the Kingfishers which left Lee on that date.

The hangars in the background of the first photo above are still here and look likklyy to survive into the future. You see them in that photo with bomb damage inflicted by Ju87 in August 1940 during the Battle of Britain. They were not fully repaired, but new facilities were created inside them, leaving the damaged original roofs as-is so they would appear as damaged beyond use structures in enemy recon images.

The hangars behind the Kingfisher/SOC aircraft remained intact until last month (Aug 2014) when they were demolished ahead of redevelopment of that part of the airfield. Not bad for temporary hangars!

If you have any logs, serials of aircraft, photos, stories of your fathers time with VCS7 I’d be very interested to learn more from those if possible Don.

Kind regards


Jon Butts
Lee Flying Association

email LFA at eghf.co.uk

By Jon Butts  |  2015-01-14 at 15:29  |  permalink

Hello Donald,

Do you have any records of which specific aircraft your father flew while flying with VCS-7 at Daedalus, Lee-on-Solent?

We are trying to see of we could locate a surviving Spitfire flown by VCS-7 but don’t yet have information as to which Spitfires they were loaned (other than they were RAF Mk Vb’s.

Kind regards,


Jon Butts
Lee Flying Association

By Joe Laub  |  2014-06-11 at 22:56  |  permalink

My Father …John Laub was an aviation radioman/gunner(ARM 1st class) aboard the USS Nevada flying in os2u Kingfishers. He was assigned to VCS7 at Lee-On -Solent in May of 1944.I’m trying to figure out where he was exactly on D day? My Farher passed away in 1991 but I remember him telling me he worked on the radios in Spitfires while his pilots got to fly them. However, I also remember him telling me that he was aboard the USS Nevada on June 6th and watched as his ships guns pounded the French coast. His service records indicate that he was stationed at Lee-on-Solent until June 28th. But in his aviator/crewman flight log,it states that he flew in OS2U-3 on June 15th and 22nd.Would it be possible that some of the radio men went aboard ship during the invasion while some stayed at the base at Lee-on-Solent? Please help solve the mystery. I would appreciate it very much!

By Jon Butts  |  2014-09-13 at 16:48  |  permalink

Hello Joe – please see my reply to Don above, my reference to the two Kingfishers that returned to their ships on 15th June was really meant for you.

Kind regards,


[…] By the summer, American Spits were escorting bombers during daylight raids over Europe and providing air cover for operations like the 1942 amphibious Dieppe raid. And when in late 1942, the Allies launched Operation Torch – the invasion of North Africa – American Spitfires operating from Gibraltar mixed it up with Luftwaffe Messerschmitts and Vichy French fighter aircraft in the skies above Algeria. As the campaign against the Afrika Korps continued throughout late 1942 and the spring of 1943, U.S. squadrons equipped with Spitfires scored dozens of kills and even produced a number of aces like Norman MacDonald and Arthur Vinson. One flyer by the name of Frank Hill became the top scoring American Spitfire ace with seven victories. By the end of 1943, most American fighter squadrons retired their Spitfires for American-made aircraft like the P-47 and later the P-51 Mustang. Despite this, some American Spits continued to fight on throughout the Italy campaign. Additionally, a small number of United States Navy squadrons flew Spitfires as photoreconnaissance aircraft from bases in England throughout the war. [1] […]

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